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Title: Protocol for Sampling Sequential Fin Spine Growth Intervals for Isotope Analysis in the Atlantic Bluefin Tuna
Authors: Lastra Luque, Patricia; Sakai, Saburo; Murua, Hilario; Arrizabalaga, Haritz
Abstract: Background: Micromilled fish otoliths (ear bones) have been widely used for stable oxygen (delta O-18) and carbon (delta C-13) isotope analysis. The first dorsal fin spine is routinely used for ageing in the eastern Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT) population; however, stable isotope analysis remains unapplied in this hard structure. The objective of the present protocol is to achieve a sequential sampling of growth layers in the ABFT fin spine at high spatial resolution and along growth trajectory for stable isotope analysis. Methods: We used a micromilling and micro-powder collecting technique for sequentially sampling annual growth layers of the fin spine bone collected from freshly caught ABFT. We assessed the carbonate content and the optimal drilling amount to ensure enough powder quantity was recovered from each annual growth band to accommodate accurate measurement of the delta O-18 and delta C-13 values. Results: The optimal drilling path included 20 drilling lines in 49 pm, with 400 Km depth and 900 Km-line width, which represents a time resolution of about 2.5 months. The minimum powder quantity required from each annual growth layer for delta O-18 and delta C-13 isotope analysis was approximately 180 mu g because the carbonate contents in the fin spine powder was 5-6\%. The delta O-18 profile assayed in the last growth intervals coincide with the surface delta O-18(seawater) for the southern west waters off the Norwegian coast, where the tuna was caught. The fluctuating pattern in the second growth interval may reflect certain fidelity to the Norwegian SE and Swedish SW coast and/or otherwise to the US west coast. The delta C-13(spine) displayed a larger temporal variability along the growth transect that may be explained by several factors including differences in habitat use, behavior, and even trophic level. Conclusion: Based on the result obtained, we present an optimal standard protocol for the sampling of sequential, annually formed growth layers in the fin spine bone for stable isotope analysis using the micro-milling as a high precision technique. This protocol is particularly useful in endangered and/or protected species for which fin spines represent a non-lethal alternative to otoliths opening new research avenues to improve their management and conservation.
Keywords: dorsal fin spine; micromilling; growth layers; delta O-18 and delta C-13; Atlantic bluefin tuna; STABLE-ISOTOPE; LIFE-HISTORY; THUNNUS-THYNNUS; CHEMISTRY; OTOLITHS; ORIGIN; CARBON; POPULATION; DELTA-C-13; MOVEMENTS
Issue Date: 2020
Type: Article
DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2020.588651
E-ISSN: 2296-7745
Funder: European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant [753304]
Appears in Publication types:Artículos científicos

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