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Title: A Synthesis of Marine Monitoring Methods With the Potential to Enhance the Status Assessment of the Baltic Sea
Authors: Mack, Leoni; Attila, Jenni; Aylagas, Eva; Beermann, Arne; Borja, Angel; Hering, Daniel; Kahlert, Maria; Leese, Florian and Lenz, Robin; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Liess, Antonia; Lips, Urmas and Mattila, Olli-Pekka; Meissner, Kristian; Pyhalahti, Timo and Setala, Outi; Strehse, Jennifer S.; Uusitalo, Laura; Wranne, Anna Willstrand; Birk, Sebastian
Abstract: A multitude of anthropogenic pressures deteriorate the Baltic Sea, resulting in the need to protect and restore its marine ecosystem. For an efficient conservation, comprehensive monitoring and assessment of all ecosystem elements is of fundamental importance. The Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission HELCOM coordinates conservation measures regulated by several European directives. However, this holistic assessment is hindered by gaps within the current monitoring schemes. Here, twenty-two novel methods with the potential to fill some of these gaps and improve the monitoring of the Baltic marine environment are examined. We asked key stakeholders to point out methods likely to improve current Baltic Sea monitoring. We then described these methods in a comparable way and evaluated them based on their costs and applicability potential (i.e., possibility to make them operational). Twelve methods require low to very low costs, while five require moderate and two high costs. Seventeen methods were rated with a high to very high applicability, whereas four methods had moderate and one low applicability for Baltic Sea monitoring. Methods with both low costs and a high applicability include the Manta Trawl, Rocket, Sediment Corer, Argo Float, Artificial Substrates, Citizen Observation, Earth Observation, the HydroFIAR (R) pH system, DNA Metabarcoding and Stable Isotope Analysis.
Keywords: Baltic Sea Action Plan; Marine Strategy Framework Directive; Water Framework Directive; data acquisition; marine management; CHLOROPHYLL-A; EUROPE; FUTURE; 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE; QUANTIFICATION; CALIBRATION; POLLUTANTS; INDICATORS; DYNAMICS
Issue Date: 2020
Type: Article
DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2020.552047
E-ISSN: 2296-7745
Funder: BONUS - EU [185]
BONUS - Academy of Finland [185]
Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council Formas
BmBF project MicroCatch\_BaltFederal Ministry of Education \& Research (BMBF) [03F0788A]
Red Sea Research Center at KAUST
European UnionEuropean Commission [308392]
Appears in Publication types:Artículos científicos

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