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Title: Hybrid Spreadable Cheese Analogues with Faba Bean and Mealworm (<i>Tenebrio molitor</i>) Flours: Optimisation Using Desirability-Based Mixture Design
Authors: Garcia-Fontanals, Laura; Llorente, Raquel; Valderrama, Juanjo; Bravo, Sergio; Talens, Clara
Abstract: Hybrid products could help bridge the gap as new alternative diets emerge in response to the demand for less animal protein, while recent studies suggest that the Western population is not yet ready to fully embrace an alternative protein-based diet. This study used a desirability-based mixture design to model hybrid spreadable cheese analogues (SCAs). The design combined milk protein concentrate (MPC), Tenebrio molitor (IF) and faba bean (FBP) flours, representing 7.1\% of the formula. Nine SCAs with different MPC/FBP/IF ratios were formulated. Incorporating the IF negatively impacted the desirable texture properties. The FBP flour improved the texture (increasing firmness and stickiness and decreasing spreadability), but only when combined with MPC. Sensory analysis showed that hybrid SCAs (= 50\% MPC) C2, C7 and C9 had a more characteristic cheesy flavour than the commercial plant-based reference, and sample C2 had a texture profile similar to the dairy reference. Samples containing IF (C7 and C9) showed a better flavour profile than that without IF (C2). The SCAs had higher protein and lower saturated fat, starch and sugar content than commercial analogues. The study suggests that incorporating alternative proteins in hybrid products can be an effective approach to reduce animal protein content, specifically dairy, in food formulations.
Keywords: hybrid cheese; faba bean protein; insect protein; desirability-based mixture design; spreadability texture analysis; sensory analysis; FUNCTIONAL-PROPERTIES; PROTEIN-FRACTIONS; WHEY PROTEINS; MILK; CARRAGEENAN
Issue Date: 2023
Publisher: MDPI
Type: Article
DOI: 10.3390/foods12071522
E-ISSN: 2304-8158
Funder: Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI) of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation [CER-20191010]
Appears in Publication types:Artículos científicos

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