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Title: Toxicopathic effects of waterborne Cd in sole juveniles, a prospective pollution monitoring sentinel for estuarine ecosystems
Authors: Briaudeau, Tifanie; Guerrero-Limon, Gustavo; Zorita, Izaskun; Marigomez, Ionan; Izagirre, Urtzi
Abstract: IntroductionEstuarine ecosystems are under high anthropogenic pressure and receive a wide Q7 variety of contaminants, including metals. They can remain trapped in estuarine sediments at high concentrations for long periods but eventually they can be released to the overlying water and become toxic for the resident benthic biota. As a consequence, biomonitoring programs surveying the health status of estuaries and coastal areas count with benthic species for the assessment of health disturbances in these specific ecosystems. The present investigation aims at recognizing toxicopathic effects elicited in estuarine life stages of the benthic fish Solea senegalensis on exposure to waterborne Cd, a model compound for metal contamination. MethodsBiological responses to metal exposure were assessed based on the application of a ``biomarker + histopathology�� approach. Two-year old sole juveniles were exposed to various concentrations of waterborne Cd for 3 and 7 days (Control; Low Cd: 1 \& mu;g/l; Mid Cd: 10 \& mu;g/l and High Cd: 1000 \& mu;g/l). Liver samples were collected for chemical analysis at day 7. Biological samples were collected at days 3 and 7 for biochemical (brain and liver), histochemical (liver) and histopathological analysis (liver, gills and gonad). ResultsBrain acetyl cholinesterase was inhibited after 7 days exposure, indicating neurotoxic effects on exposure to 1000 \& mu;g Cd/l. Hepatic catalase and glutathione-Stransferase were induced at day 3 and inhibited at day 7, which suggests a bell-shaped response. A dose-dependent lysosomal membrane destabilization in hepatocytes was recorded at day 7. In parallel, histopathological lesions in gills, liver and gonad were more frequent at day 7 in soles exposed to high Cd concentrations. DiscussionOverall, the ``biomarker + histopathology�� approach revealed that waterborne Cd causes toxicopathic effects in sole juveniles upon exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations (10 \& mu;g Cd/l). The effects were clearly time dependent, and thus it is conceivable that more severe biological effects would be elicited by these low concentrations of Cd at longer exposure periods. Therefore, biomarkers and histopathology in combination provide early-warning indications of altered health status after waterborne Cd exposure in sole juveniles, a prospective sentinel for biological effects assessment of metal contamination in pollution monitoring programs in estuaries and coastal areas.
Issue Date: 2023
Type: Article
DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2023.1182294
E-ISSN: 2296-7745
Funder: Spanish MICINN [CTM2017-87766-R]
University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU [UFI 11/37]
Basque Government through Consolidated Research Groups Grant [IT810-B, IT1302-19]
Spanish MINECO
Appears in Publication types:Artículos científicos

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